Selasa, 16 April 2013

pengertian dan contoh perbedaan kalimat ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

Pengertian kalimat active and passive
Kalimat aktif (active voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya melakukan pekerjaan, sebaliknya, kalimat pasif (passive voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya dikenai pekerjaan oleh object kalimat. Active voice lebih sering digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dibandingkan dengan passive voice. Namun demikian, sering kita temukan passive voice di surat-surat kabar, artikel-artikel di majalah-majalah dan tulisan-tulisan ilmiah. Passive voice digunakan karena object dari active voice merupakan informasi yang lebih penting dibandingkan dengan subject-nya.
Contoh :
Active : We fertilize the soil every 6 months
Passive: The soil is fertilized by us every 6 months
Dari contoh ini dapat kita lihat bahwa:
Object dari active voice (the soil) menjadi subject dari passive voice
Subject dari active voice (we) menjadi object dari passive voice. Perhatikan pula bahwa terjadi perubahan dari subject pronoun ‘we’ menjadi object pronoun ‘us’.
Verb1 (fertilize) pada active voice menjadi verb3 (fertilized) pada passive voice.
Ditambahkannya be ‘is’ di depan verb3. Be yang digunakan adalah tergantung pada subject passive voice dan tenses yang digunakan. (Perhatikan pola-pola passive voice di bawah).
Ditambahkannya kata ‘by’ di belakang verb3. Namun, jika object dari passive voice dianggap tidak penting atau tidak diketahui, maka object biasanya tidak dikemukakan dan begitu pula kata ‘by’.
Khusus untuk kalimat-kalimat progressive (present, past, past perfect, future, past future, dan past future perfect continuous, perlu menambahkan ‘being’ di depan verb3). Kalau tidak ditambahkan “being”, tensisnya akan berubah, bukan progressive/continuous lagi. Perhatikan contoh-contoh pada poin h – o di bawah.
Berdasarkan keenam poin di atas maka passive voice mengikuti pola sebagai berikut:
Subject + be + Verb3 + by + Object + modifier
Pola active dan passive voice pada tiap tensis
a. Jika active voice dalam simple present tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah is, am atau are.
Contoh:
Active : He meets them everyday.
Passive : They are met by him everyday.
Active : She waters this plant every two days.
Passive : This plant is watered by her every two days.
b. Jika active voice dalam simple past tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah was atau were
Contoh:
Active : He met them yesterday
Passive : They were met by him yesterday
Active : She watered this plant this morning
Passive : This plant was watered by her this morning
c. Jika active voice dalam present perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary has atau have, sehingga menjadi ‘has been’ atau ‘have been’
Contoh:
Active : He has met them
Passive : They have been met by him
Active : She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
Passive : This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.
d. Jika active voice dalam past perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary had, sehingga menjadi had been
Contoh:
Active : He had met them before I came.
Passive : They had been met by him before I came.
Active : She had watered this plant for 5 minutes when I got here
Passive : This plant had been watered by her for 5 minutes when I got here
e. Jika active voice dalam simple future tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah be
Contoh:
Active : He will meet them tomorrow.
Passive : They will be met by him tomorrow.
Active : She will water this plant this afternoon.
Passive : This plant will be watered by her this afternoon.
Active : The farmers are going to harvest the crops next week
Passive : The crops are going to be harvested by the farmers next week.
f. Jika active voice dalam future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary will have, sehingga menjadi ‘will have been’
Contoh:
Active : He will have met them before I get there tomorrow.
Passive : They will have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.
Active : She will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
Passive : This plant will have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.
g. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary would have, sehingga menjadi ‘would have been’.
Contoh:
Active : He would have met them.
Passive : They would have been met by him.
Active : She would have watered this plant.
Passive : This plant would have been watered by her.
h. Jika active voice dalam present continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (is, am atau are) + being.
Contoh:
Active : He is meeting them now.
Passive : They are being met by him now.
Active : She is watering this plant now.
Passive : This plant is being watered by her now.
i. Jika active voice dalam past continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (was atau were) + being.
Contoh:
Active : He was meeting them.
Passive : They were being met by him.
Active : She was watering this plant.
Passive : This plant was being watered by her.
j. Jika active voice dalam perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (has/have) been + being.
Contoh:
Active : He has been meeting them.
Passive : They have been being met by him.
Active : She has been watering this plant.
Passive : This plant has been being watered by her.
k. Jika active voice dalam past perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah had been + being.
Contoh:
Active : He had been meeting them.
Passive : They had been being met by him.
Active : She had been watering this plant.
Passive : This plant had been being watered by her.
l. Jika active voice dalam future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will be + being.
Contoh:
Active : He will be meeting them.
Passive : They will be being met by him.
Active : She will be watering this plant.
Passive : This plant will be being watered by her.
m. Jika active voice dalam past future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would be + being.
Contoh:
Active : He would be meeting them.
Passive : They would be being met by him.
Active : She would be watering this plant.
Passive : This plant would be being watered by her.
n. Jika active voice dalam future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will have been + being.
Contoh:
Active : He will have been meeting them.
Passive : They will have been being met by him.
Active : She will have been watering this plant.
Passive : This plant will have been being watered by her.
o. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would have been + being.
Contoh:
Active : He would be meeting them.
Passive : They would be being met by him.
Active : She would be watering this plant.
Passive : This plant would be being watered by her.

Contoh perbedaan active and passive

Active
Passive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Futurewill
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Futurebe going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuouswill
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuousbe going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfectwill
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfectbe going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuouswill
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuousbe going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the PastWould
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the PastWas Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.




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